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Reports of calendar systems of the ancient Celts and Germans are very scarce and fragmentary. Some provide information on astronomy, in others - the so-called civil reckoning of time. It should also be remembered that the very composition of the Celtic and Germanic peoples was heterogeneous, and it influenced the appearance and functioning of the calendar systems in general. Celtic tribes broke up into four major branches: the Irish-Gaelic and Cambrian-korniyskuyu (British Isles), Breton and Gallic (the continent). Of these large groups were numerous branches. All the early Celts came into contact with the Romans. In I. Mr.. Oe. Pliny, telling about the customs and manners of Gaul Celtic priests (Druids), reported that they associated dead reckoning, and with changing the phases of the moon. According to Guy Julius Caesar (I century. BC. E. - I in. N. E). Gauls scored by the day, but at night. Consequently, they built their astronomical calendar on the moon or lunar-solar year. Strabo (63 BC. E. - 23 AD. E.) Noted that the deity worshiped keltibery Moon. The ancient Celtic coins motif Moon occupies a leading position. Observing the change of its phase, the disappearance and appearance, the Celts came to the conclusion that death does not mean the end, and the birth, aging, death, as was the case with the Moon, leading to a new life. This basic rhythm governs all natural phenomena, and is expressed in opposition to the death not only lives, but also the seasons to each other, as well as the date of the night. In drevneirlandskih laws are very common expressions such as "three nights" or "nine nights", "the year before that night"; hospitality was put on the "three nights" or "Kay did not sleep for nine nights and nine days," etc. In drevneirlandski "night before the day" sounds like «oidche samain», ie, the "night samena" the night before November 1; "Saturday Night» - «oidche sathuirn», ie the night, connecting on Friday with a Saturday, etc. The concept of "night" to make sense as "the night with half of the world," the next day. The Celts year (Celtic bleido, Cambrian blwydd, Breton bloaz) broke up for the winter and summer. In the year drevneirlandskih law is defined as «dá se mis», ie, "twice six months" in Gaelic sources is more common definition is not, but his two semesters (banner blwydyn - half of the Cambrian hanter, hanner and korniyskogo hanter - half .) Semesters piled larger periods of one and a half or two and a half years (respectively 3 and 5 semesters). Consideration was given seven winter and five summer months. Despite the differences in duration, they were regarded as half: samain - «winter», beltane - «summer." Dividing the year into three seasons as among the Germans, came later. Traces of the division remained in the old Welsh laws: Summer (Celtic samo, Irish or sam samrad, Cambrian hâf, korniyskoe haf), Winter (Celtic gimo, or gaimo, Irish gemred), spring (Celtic ersâko, Irish errach) and autumn (Celtic foghamhar). The ancient Irish Winter (gemred) covered the period from November 1 to February 1, spring (errach) - the period from February 1 to May 1, summer (samrad) - from 1 May to 1 August and autumn (foghamhar) - the period from 1 August to early winter. It is unknown whether the beginning of the year the same for all the Celts. By drevneirlandskim sources, civil reckoning the length of the year consisted of between one and followed by a holiday deity Tara, ie, from November to November, and often the year was called "winter" as Tara holiday began in early samena (winter). Astronomical reckoning, the duration is unknown, although the calendar of Coligny, which will be discussed below, the year was seen as lunisolar, because months totaled 30 and 29 days (354 or 355 days). 30-day month, there was to align the lunar and solar (365 days) period. But the technique to achieve this in the sources are not disclosed. The ancient Gauls and Bretons are known so-called "extra days" of 12 (cf. Breton gourdeziou from dez - «day"; Gaelic dyddiou from dydd - «day"), which is popularly associated various superstitions. Month (Celtic mêns, Irish mí, Cambrian mîs, novobretonskoe miz) was divided into two parts: the "bright" - from new moon to full moon and the "dark" - the full moon to crescent moon move. The calendar of Coligny and drevneirlandskim texts, they were "three times five days" (Irish coithe, cuicthe from coic - five; Wed Cambrian pymthegnos, pythefnos from pymp - five). Date of the full moon stands out. But there were other factions days, as nomad - 9 days, dechmad - 10 days, and so on 7-day week came the Celts under Christian influence. In November 1897, the town of Bourgogne, near Lyon, during archaeological excavations in the community of Coligny in the former Celtic settlement tribe sekvanov were found two bronze tables of the Gallo-Roman period. They preserved a fragment of 121 with inscriptions in Celtic languages. However, many words can not be reduced and decrypting. Engraved on tables of 62 calendar months, placed in series in 5 years to 12 months. They number at the beginning and in the middle of it is added 2 more months. Samon is listed as the first month of the year, a cantlos - twelve. Etymology of many names is not clear: 1) samon (Wed. Irish or Celtic sam samo - «Summer"), 2) dumann; 3) ruiros; 4) anagantios; 5) ogron (iu? - Time starting cold?) 6) cutios and 7) giamon (iu? Wed Celtic gaiamo, gaimo, gimo - «Winter"), 8) simiuisonn; 9) equos; 10) elembiu; 11) edrini; 12) cantlos. Samon and giamon separated by 6 months, and they determine the half-year - summer and winter. Before the names of the months is a sign of "M" or a combination of letters «MID», ie, "month" (cf. Breton miz, korniyskoe mis). Below, under the names of months, followed by «mat» (or «m») and «anm»: the first - if you specify a 30-day month, the second - to 29-days. Equos month is an exception, although it is marked with «anm» and must total 29 days, it consists of 30 days. We can assume that in equos alternates 29 and 30 days. On the whole calendar looks like this: 1st - samon «mat» (30 days) 2nd - dumann «anm» (29 days) 3rd - ruiros «mat» (30 days) 4th - Anagantios «anm» (29 days) 5th - ogron «mat» (30 days) 6th - cutios «mat» (30 days) 7th - giamon «anm» (29 days) 8th - simiuisonn «mat» (30 days) 9th - equos «anm» (30 days) 10th - elembiu «anm» (29 days) 11th - edrini «mat» (30 days) 12th - cantlos «anm» (29 days) Each month the full moon is divided into two parts - 15 days or 15 and 14 days (full and empty months). The second part is always referred to as ATENOUX, ie, the "big night", or "full-moon night." The inscription at the end of an empty (partial) months, where else should a full month's one day, says the word «diuertomu» (or «djuertio, djuertomu, diuortomu», etc.), which translates as 'turn', " rotation "or" return "New Moon. In the first half of the month days are under the Roman numerals from I to XV, in the second - from I to XIIII or XV. On the left the letters and letter combinations «D», «N», «MD», «NSDS», which means "day" - to «D» and «MD» (dydd), «Night" - for «N» (nos ), the time from the middle of the night to noon - for «NSDS». Time, concluded in these segments could be different. Before the «D» or «MD» often are characters + I, I + I, II +, ie, adverse, normal and good day. Thus, in the calendar month of the ancient Celts had nothing to do with the modern. This calendar was superimposed on the astronomical, describing certain days of days, months, both favorable and unfavorable. Added on each day of the month bore the name of one of the 30 months that followed one after another. This tradition is reflected in the preservation of the Bretons in the so-called "great day» (des gourdeziou): the first 12 days of January, fix the nature of time, which will be reflected in future during the next 12 months. For the month of 30 days in the calendar there is no permanent, though more often it is located in front of giamon, ie, at the end of the summer semester. Name it - giallos, mark "M" for missing it. According to this calendar druids in accordance with defined phases of the moon days falling on holidays, and their duration. The moon was worshiped as the "owner" of fertility, and its rhythm obeyed four large seasonal celebration, the names have been preserved only in the Irish language. This is known as the civil calendar. As already mentioned, from November 1 to mark the celebration of the Celts began samena (samain; on the calendar of Coligny - samon, samonios). The word translated as "union", "union." It was a night festival that unites and connects two of the world: the earthly world and the hereafter people dead - Seed (sid). On this night, the Celts believed in, was not only to communicate with the inhabitants of the underworld, but also its dead could visit the living. It was a feast, with which British Celts began the New Year. Druids in the night samena burned at the stake gifts brought by the gods. In Ireland, in the XIX century. That night cattle were carried out between two blazing fire, believing that this ritual will protect the whole year of livestock diseases. Holiday samen do not belong to the year past, nor to the future year. He followed right behind in summer (sam) and considered by the Celts from two sides - the dark and light. The beginning of daylight was noted on May 1 in celebration Beltan (Beltain), dedicated to the god Lugh, corresponding to the Roman Mercury, and the date of the largest collections of Druids. August 1st day celebrated Lugnasada (Lugnasad - «meeting in honor of Lugh," or, in another version, the "marriage Meadows"). The belief of the Celts, the meadow that day acted as a deity of fertility, giving out their wealth. This is a celebration of autumn and harvest. In Gaul during the Roman domination was replaced by the Gauls Assembly (Concilium Galliarum) in Lyon, which glorified not God Lugh, and the emperor. February 1 marked imbolk (imbolc - lustration, purification after the winter). This fixed the poles of the holiday calendar time - the beginning of winter (samain) and summer (beltain). Subsequently been replaced by celebration imbolk day holy Brigid, and then the Virgin, while the god of the dead celebration November 1 became All Saints Day. The transition from the ancient Celts, the lunar to the solar year is reflected in mythology: stories about the struggle of deities representing the moon and sun worship, or the story of the god Lug - lunar and solar hero who generates Kukhulina son, the famous hero of the ancient Celts, solar, etc. The symbolism of secret numbers Celts also quite clearly shows the gradual establishment of a Celtic solar calendar cycle began. Characteristically, the orientation of the ancient Celts included the basic metaphysical concept of the calendar cycle: the north (ichtar) - bottom and left side, south (tûas) - top and right side. Clear half of the world - the world of the living, when the sun goes 'south' (up) from east to west. At this time the reigning gods of light. When the sun goes down "north" from west to east during the night, the power comes to the dead and the mysterious and dark gods. In this movement, and was an annual cycle. That is why the ancients turned to the right spells for favorable omens. The entrances to towns and villages of Gaul were always arranged so that the carts entering the place had to turn right. But to take account of the Celts romanization solar year only secondarily. In order to equalize the solar year with lunar, ie, the principal, it was necessary to proceed from the ratio of 12 and 1 / 3 = 37: 3, namely a 3 year solar charge 37 synodic (lunar) months, and then the difference will be ( 29,5306 × 37 - 365,24 × 3 = 3.1), only 3 days. The ancient Celtic calendar quickly and earlier than Germanic, first under the influence of romanization and then in making Christianity transformed the Celts. This process is clearly reflected in the modern names of months: Equal influence is observed in the days of the week (drevneirlandskoe sechtmaine, Gaelic seachduin, drevnekorniyskoe seithun, novokorniyskoe seithan, srednebretonskoe suzyn, novobretonskoe sizun, or suzun): sül, lün, morth, merchir, iou, guener, sadorn or dies solis, lunae, Martis, Mercurii, Jovis, Veneris, Saturni. Even after the baptism of the Irish in V. Mr.. Oe. Sunday was called dies dominica (Lord's Day), Wednesday - the first fast food, Friday - the last fast, Thursday - the day between fast food, etc. As an example, a comparison of the day names in modern Celtic languages and German names in the Anglo-Saxons and Britons:
The ancient Germans, who switched to settle down and collided with the influence of Roman culture, awareness of the extent, it was very vague. For many Gothic, Saxon, and other sources, the German farmers and ranchers as the reference point of time taken early winter or late fall. They, like other peoples of the northern latitudes, winter, summer and contrasted divided the year into two halves. Anglo-Saxon chronicler Bede (VIII cent.) Began counting years from late autumn (vinterfylle) and was actually talking about six months. The same division is also found in Snorri Sturluson (XIII century. - Haustmánuðr). Line between two halves of the equinox was thought, or rather "ravnonochie" (drevneverhnegermanskoe ebennath, Anglo-Saxon efenniht, drevnefrizskoe evennath, Norse jafndœgr). At this time the Germans had made great sacrifices. Corresponding to the four-membered by dividing the year celebrated by the civil calendar four great events: the revival of the sun god (the middle of winter - jul), the revival of joy at the beginning of summer in honor of the god Froh (Fro, Freyr) and in the middle of summer in honor of the god Balder (Baldur), coming spring in honor of the gods and Tiu Tunari (Ziu, Thunar) and harvesting in the fall. The introduction of the four seasons was influenced Julian calendar, from which the Germans have learned the concept of "ekinoks" and "Midsummer." After the Christianization of the Germanic church combined the day of John the Baptist (June 24) days from the gods Froh and Balder, Michael the Archangel (September 29) afternoon with fruit picking. Throughout the Middle Ages as an echo of an ancient pagan ritual of burning offerings on this day fires were burning in the Moselle, Eifel and Sweden. Widukind Korveysky (X cent.) Reported a three-day grand festival among the ancient Saxons at the end of September. Feast of St. Martin (November 11) to coincide with the day of the beginning of winter, and Christmas - with the middle of winter. The beginning of spring fell on Easter Day at St. George's (23 or 24 April) or May 1, partly dates back to pagan customs. Germanic priests could establish the time for major holidays to determine the position of the sun. As an example, the group shared stone circles, encountered in the field of settlement of the ancient Germans. The number of stacked stones often corresponded to specific calendar dates. Neolithic structure near Evberi (UK) consists of two main complex and far from it for about 2 km of small circles linked by two curved and gradually narrowing "streets." The main structure is built of massive stone blocks faced the ramparts. The remains of 99 plates of width and height of 3-4 m and a thickness of about 1.5 m. Inside this outer circle were two more terms, of which the inner consisted of 12 of these plates, the outer double in the south - from 30, while in the north - from 29. Since the average duration of the synodic month is 29.5 days, we can assume that the plates were determined number of days of empty and full months. The total number of months in the sunny year marked the inner circle of 12 plates, 99 plates correspond to the amount of months, after which it will start the month and year are still identical. So, we have an 8-year cycle from 3 months to 30 days: 49 months and 29 days = 1421 date; 50 months and 30 days = 1500 days. Total: 99 months = 2921 day. But at the same time, 8 years of 365 and fourth day of account for 2922 days. The difference between the lunar and solar years is 1 day, and it is possible that this discrepancy is to align the front of the southern double circle was placed a single stone. In this case we can assume the influence of Greek and Roman numerals. A similar numerical relationship found at Stonehenge and other stone circular structures. Confirmation of the lunar-solar year is found in the folk beliefs of the ancient Germans, especially in the allocation of the number "13", which in their art was of a shade of sacredness (for example, the image of the sun or a star with 13 rays, the division of circular shapes in 13 segments, etc.) . The lunar-solar year was based on the definition of a full moon and new moon. Days within the natural, ie, the natural, the year the Germans were determined from the change of the moon, and in the Germanic language clearly traced the exact designation of the concepts of "Luna" and "Month" (eg, Gothic mena - «moon» and menoþs - «month», Old High German mânôd, Anglo-Saxon mon [a] þ, Norse mánaðr, drevnefrizskoe monath, Middle High mânôt, mônôt, Netherlands maand, Swedish manad, Danish maaned, British month, and so on). The length of the month the Germans counted from one new moon to another, and therefore not scored by the day but at night. They used the interrelated lunisolar year in which the difference between the lunar year of 354 days (12 months to 29.5 days) and 365 days of sun filled in the periodic addition of a 12-year cycle of one year. Month of 30 days was considered as "unfortunate" and symbolically marked the number "13". Equating the lunar to the solar year with the inclusion of 30-day month occurred on the needs. Dividing the year into three parts and is found in some runic calendars (rîmstock) - People form of the Julian calendar, which spread to northern Europe from the XIII century. Runic calendar was a stick or puck out of wood, bone or metal signs put on them. Beginning of the year it was equal to the top of the Norse summer semester (April 14) or the beginning of winter (October 14). In Alemanni and Franks beginning of the year was determined by the month of March. However, in the VIII. transfer was observed beginning of the year to the month of May, not associated with a change in the calendar system in general, but with the policy of the Frankish kings. During the period of Romanization Germanic tribes spread calculation of the New Year with Christmas, this practice has been associated with the transition from the Germanic lunar-solar year to the sun and the impact on the local calendar Julian calendar. The church was originally described as an introduction antiquus error and threatened to curse those who followed him. However, this practice has established itself in the second half of VI., The beginning of the year moved on January 1. In Germany, in Munster, the date was officially introduced in 1313, in Frankfurt am Main - in 1338, in Switzerland (Canton of Vaud exception), and in some French provinces - in the XI century. In Mainz - only in the XV century. in England - at the Norman conquest, until 1155, and then re-adopted in 1751, Norway introduced its second half of XV century., Denmark and Sweden - in 1559, in the Netherlands - in 1575 in Scotland - in 1600 A special calculation was observed among the Germans of Scandinavia and Northern Europe. North Germanic Year (Gothic jer / ger, Anglo-Saxon gear, drevnefrizskoe jer, Saxon gar / ger, Old High German jar, Icelandic ár, Swedish år, Danish aar) was divided into two so-called half - misseri, ie summer (sumar) and winter (vetr). The year began with the winter, and the expense was based on the winters. The night was preceded by a day, was divided at the beginning of summer (sumarmál), middle (miðsumar, mittsumar), and then followed the end, winter - at the beginning (vetrnætr), middle (miðvetr, miðr vetr), and then followed the end. Were also considered spring (var) and autumn (haust), but as the transition periods. Year consisted of 12 months (mánaðr). For Old Icelandic calendar, such as year started April 14: 1st - sáðtíð (gaukmánaðr) 2nd - eggtíð (stekktíð) 3rd - selmánaðr (solmánaðr) 4th - heyannir (miðsumar) 5th - kornskurðarmánaðr 6th - haustmánaðr 7th - gormánaðr 8th - fremánaðr (ýlir) 9th - hrútmánaðr (mörsugr) 10th - þorri 11th - gói 12th - einmánaðr Value þorri, gói, einmánaðr unclear. 1st - "Cuckoo's Month" (April), 2nd - "for planting and laying eggs," 3rd - "while grazing pasture," 4th - "haying time and harvest," 5 - th and 6 th - month of autumn, 7th - "the battles", 8th - "while howling storms" and 9 - "while the constellation Aries" (December). All names identified natural hazards and economic needs. Each month consisted of 30 days. By the 3rd month of summer as "an increase in night» (aukanætr) added a further 4 days. So, the year consisted of 364 days, or 52 seven-day weeks: winter - from 25 weeks and 5 days; summer - from 26 weeks and 2 days. Winter just started Saturday, the summer - Thursday. Between 950 and 970 years. Iceland calendar was introduced, combining the old with Julian. When the dating indicated the half-year, week and day of week (eg, "on Thursday, four weeks before the summer"). This method of dating is found in the sagas pre-Christian times. Drevnesevernye days of the week was: The last day of the week has kept its name from the ancient custom at the end of the week to perform ablution: laugardagr means "washing day." With the Christianization of these ancient names were replaced. 1st - the day of the Lord - dróttinsdagr 2 nd - 2 nd day of the week - annarr dagr viku Third - third day of the week - þriði dagr viku 4 th - Wednesday (midweek) - miðvikudagr 5 th - 5 th day of the week - fimti dagr viku 6th - a day of fasting - föstudagr 7 th - the day washing - laugardagr (þváttdagr) Old Norse calendar is not much different from the Old Norse. Calendar consisted of 365 days of the Julian year. Norwegians are only part of the year named in a special way (sumarmal - April 14; midsumar - June 14; vetrnaetr - October 14; midvetr - January 13). Names of months have been common throughout the North German region, but different from the Old Icelandic: 1st - torre; 2nd - gjö; 3rd - krikla; kvine; 4th and 5th - voarmoanar (Spring), 6-th and 7 - sumarmoanar (summer), 8 th and 9 th - haustmoanar (autumn), 10 and 11 - vinterstid (winter), 12 th - jolemoane, skammtid, torre, gjö (Swedish thorre, goja ) and krikla - proper names of deities, the time, concluded in these months (January to March), was determined by the new moon and it was important for later counting Easter. These months should be regarded as remnants of the lunar-solar year. Drevneseverogermanskie days of the week sunnudagr, mánadagr, etc. match the names of pagan deities: Sunday and Monday answered Roman models, Tuesday tiw - Mars, Wednesday odin (wodan) - Mercury, Thursday thor - Jupiter, Friday freja - Venus. These old names have been banned from Bishop Jon Holara (1106-1121), although laugardagr preserved, for the Sabbath, the Romans dedicated to Saturn, the ancient northern Germans could not find the mythological parallels, and the day got its name from a very ancient custom. 7-day week came to the northern Germans, probably from Gaul as early as III-IV centuries. Mr.. Oe. Thus, the northern Germans distinguish between individual time phases of the changes that occur in nature. Of the Julian calendar they had learned only a 7-day week - the basis of their 364-day year. This year, along with the church there was Julian from them for a long time. As with other Germans, they have influenced the romanization and subsequent introduction of Christianity occurred quite rapidly transforming the ancient calendars. Actually, even when Charlemagne was an attempt to eliminate some old Germanic names of the months: XI century. XII century. 1 and - wintarmanoth 1st - wintarmanoth, iarmanol 2nd - hornung 2nd - hornunc 3rd - lentzinmanolh 3rd - mertzo 4th - ôstarmanoth 4th - aprelle 5th - winnemanolh 5th - meio 6th - braehmanolh 6th - brachmanoth 7th - hewimanoth 7th - hewimanolh 8th - aranmanoth 8th - aranmanolh 9th - wilumanoth 9th - herbismanoth 10th - windumemanolh 10th - windumemanolh 11th - herbismanoth 11 and - wintermanolh 12th - heilagmanoth 12th - herlimanolh In the XV century. already taken the following names: 1st - jenner 2nd - hornung 3rd - merz 4th - april 5th - mei 6th - brachmond 7th - heumond 8th - augstmond 9th - herbstmond 10th - weinmond 11th - wintermond 12th - christmond Bede says Anglo-Saxons on the calendar system in the VIII. They dominated the lunar cycle with a total of 12 months a year and a leap of 13 months. The year began on December 25. It began with "Night Mother» (Modraneht), a month is called: 1st - January - giuli 2nd - February - solmonath 3rd - March - hredmonath 4th - April - eosturmonath 5th - May - thrimilci 6 th - 1 st June - aerra lida 7 th - 2 nd June, July - äftera lida 8th - August - veodmonath 9th - September - halegmonath 10 th - October - vinlirfyllith And 11 - November - blotmonath 12 th - December - giuli (later aegga giuli «1st December"). As you can see, two months, called same. Double months were a turning point, who started six months. Each season covered three months, but the year itself was divided into winter and summer. Winter began with the 10th month. In a leap year to two lida added a third, which is why he was named the year thrilidus. Other issues on the Anglo-Saxon calendar is not covered by Bede. There are various options for old Germanic month names (for example, louprîsi in ancient Switzerland, ie, "the month falling leaves" - November), but in general they reflect the economic activity of the Germans. Title winnemanoth (May, ie, "month grazing") has been used in the Netherlands for July (weidemaand); April there called grasmaand («month of grass"). In Friesian hewimanot («haymaking month") sounds like already heimoanne, the Germans - Heumond, in the Netherlands - howmaen. In the early Middle Ages in many German regions of Western Europe are often interchanged winnemanoth bisemânôt (ie, "the time when cows are like crazy, jump across the meadow"). Anglo-Saxon thrimilci meant "the time when the cows three times a day, give milk." Employment in agriculture was reflected in the names of brachmanoth (June - "the time of sowing after harvesting the first crop»), aranmanoth (July - "the month of harvest.") Months were devoted to the gods: April (eosturmanoth, ôstarmanoth) - the goddess Ostara, March (hredmanoth) - goddess Hrede etc. Very early, along with the names of the months starogermanskimi were used and the Latin (and later all the regions of Europe in Iceland, from the XIII century.), For example, in February - mensis Plutonis (mensis purgatorius), April - mensis venustus or mensis novarum, May - mensis Mariae, June - mensis magnus, July - mensis fenalis, August - mensis messionum etc. The Germans even in pagan times were familiar with the term "week" (Gothic vikó, Old High German and wëcha wëhsal, and Middle High wuche woche, Netherlands and English week, Swedish vecka, Danish uge, etc.), but before the introduction of 7-day week, used by to 14 at night. Germanic name of the week meant "order, regularly repeated alternation." Days of the week were devoted to ancient gods, who under the influence of Roman culture was identified later with the Roman gods. Only Saturn, because it does not match any of the old Germanic gods, the Germans kept without any transformation. Since the breakdown of months to weeks and days in various ancient Germanic tribes did not take place simultaneously and established mainly in the IV-V centuries., The names of several days, weeks, certain tribes do not match. The most used are the following names: 1st - sunnûndag, sonnentag, sonntag, sunnen tag, frôntag; 2nd - mânintac, mondtag, montag; 3rd - aftermântac (eritac, erchtag in Bavaria; ziestag in Swabia). The last two forms to this day preserved in the national tongue. The dominant left srednenemetskoe dies tag, tiestag, which is very similar and Low German name. Dinstag, or Dienstag, now known mainly in the literary language. Is the consideration eritag we are dealing with a purely German name? This may be doubted. 4th - presumably wuotanestac; further - mittawecha, mitich, midechen, mittichen. This day is very early in the Upper Germany ceased to call on the name of God, to whom he was devoted. On the contrary, the ancient name of the Westphalian and nizhnereynskoy forms saved as godenstag, gudenstag, gaunstag, gunstag, in the Dutch and Frisian - woensdach, woensdag, goensdag, wernsdei, wânsdey. 5th - donares tac, donrestag, donnerstag, duristag, dornstag, phinztac (Wed Netherlands dondertag). 6th - frije tac, frîtag, vridag, freitag, frîatac, frîjetag, frehtag. 7th - sambaztag, samiztag, sûnnen-âband, sunnen âbent; the ancient name of that day's only stored in the Low German forms of Westphalia sâtertag, saitertag, Netherlands zaterdag and finally drevnefrizskoe saterdei. Ancient names are used entirely in English, which apparently was caused by deep ethnic differences that have arisen as a result of the Norman Conquest (XI cent.) Between the ruling elite of society and the rest of the Anglo-Saxon mass of the population, separation of elite, highly Christianized culture of the people, mass: Sunday , Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. With the spread of Christianity among the Germanic church tried to eliminate gradually the ancient names and replace them with others. So, very early on Sunday in the sources became known as the "Day of the Lord» (dies dominica). This name quickly took root among the tribes and peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (see Spanish and Portuguese domingo), as well as the territory populated by a large mass of the Gallo-Roman population (cf. Provencal dimenge or dimergue, French dimanche). Population of the Iberian Peninsula and the Gallo-Romans and assimilated in the Hebrew sabbath (Wed. French samedi from sabdedi, Provencal dissapte, Spanish and Portuguese sábado). It has penetrated even into High German: a drevneverhnegermansky (sambastac), Middle High (samztac) and novoverhnenemetsky (Samstag). Along with this name very early on in the environment, the Germans appear as a notation on Saturday sûnnunabând, sonnabend (lit. "night sun"), borrowed from the church vigilia. With this form is similar to the English aftermontag to designate Tuesday. Then the church tried to eliminate the pagan name from Monday to Friday. According Ritus ecclesiasticus, so it calls Isidore of Seville (VII cent.), Monday was seen as feria secunda, Tuesday - feria tertia, Wednesday - feria quanta, Thursday - feria quinta, Friday - feria sexta. Accordingly, the Sunday - it's feria prima, Saturday - feria septima or feria sabbati. The last two names are built on a falsehood, because the concept of «feria» means «working day» (dies feriatus, ferialis, feriaticus), which does not fall holiday. According to Bede Venerable, custom days of the week to determine feriae was introduced to Clair Pope Sylvester I (314-336). In Scandinavia, instead of using the word feria dies (dies secundus as Monday, and so forth, in church documents, all the same feria secunda). In Portugal, this custom is rooted entirely: Monday - segunda feira, Tuesday - terca feira, etc. In Spain, Iceland and supplant the pagan name completely failed. In Upper Germany and Iceland midweek was purely practical name (for example, in Iceland instead feria quarta - miðvikudagr). Dating to ancient Roman Kalends, and idam nonam used since VII., But the names of months sounded not as objectified, but substantivized: not Calendis Juliis, but Calendis Julii or Calendas Julii - for July 1, often used instead of Calendae dies Calendarum (eg , in the Lombard laws). Division of the day to watch is known among the Germans and the Celts only by the Roman pattern: night and day were divided into four parts. In the V century. there was a distinction between the morning, as such, and the sunrise, so that morning themselves relegated to the night. Pozdnenemetskoe Mette Frühmette or not associated with this length of time, it comes from the liturgy, introduced Christianity in the church. Day broke a seven foot canonicae: 1) matutina (in the last quarter of the night), 2) prima (sunrise), and 3) tertia (around noon), 4) sexta (noon), 5) pop (about mid-afternoon); 6) vespera (sunset), 7) completorium (after sunset). This breakdown is established around the beginning of VII century. and lasted until the XIV century. Dividing the day into 24 hours it was known, but it is mainly used in scientific treatises, and came into use only in the XIV century. The modern division of hours by 60 minutes. and 3600 seconds. was confirmed only in the Renaissance.